Friday, May 24, 2013

Open heart surgery

Open heart surgery is any surgery where the chest is opened and surgery is done on the heart muscle, valves, arteries, or other parts of the heart (such as the aorta). The term "open" means that the chest is "cut" open.
The definition of open heart surgery has become confusing because new procedures are being done on the heart through smaller cuts. Some new procedures are being done with the heart still beating.
A heart-lung machine is usually used during open heart surgery. While the surgeon works on the heart, the machine helps send oxygen-rich blood to the brain and other organs.
  • Your heart surgeon will make a 2-inch to 5-inch-long surgical cut in the chest wall. Muscles in the area will be divided so your surgeon can reach the heart. The surgeon can fix or replace a valve or perform bypass surgery.
  • During endoscopic surgery, your surgeon makes one to four small holes in your chest. Then your surgeon uses special instruments and a camera to perform the surgery.
  • During robot-assisted valve surgery, the surgeon makes two to four tiny cuts (about 1/2 inch to 3/4 inch) in your chest. The surgeon uses a special computer to control robotic arms during the surgery. The surgeon sees a three-dimensional view of the surgery on the computer. This method is very precise.
You will not need to be on a heart-lung machine for these types of surgery. However, your heart rate will be slowed with medicine or a mechanical device. If there is a problem with these procedures, the surgeon may have to open the chest to do the surgery.

Monday, August 20, 2012



Most cells in our body have a specific function in particular organs, such as the liver, skin or brain. The stems cells have a unique potential of regenerating and developing into different types of cell in the body during early age thus enabling treatments for diseases and injuries, many of which cannot be treated with traditional medical methods.  Stem cells are non toxic and devoid of side effects compared to its toxic drug counterparts. The use of stem cells for therapeutic purposes can ensure lower treatment costs and promote longer lives. Stem Cells are the building blocks of our body. They have the unique capability of replacing damaged cells and tissues and repairing the damage cause to the body.

What is stem cell medicine?

Stem Cells hold the potential to cure many diseases. Stem Cells are the fountainhead of all mature cells in the body. They retain the ability to self-renew and differentiate into a variety of different tissues. Recent studies show that Stem Cells are not restricted to one lineage, but can differentiate along different lineages when placed in the appropriate micro-environment, thus potentially opening up new vistas especially in the field of regenerative medicine.

More than 45,000 people across the world are receiving Stem Cell transplant every year. Stem Cell technology can reduce pharmaceutical R&D by 25% each year, with savings of up to US $25 million in each drug market. The first successful stem cell transplant was conducted in 1988 for Fanconi’s anemia and since then research in this field has grown by leaps and bounds.

Stem cell therapy consists of introduction of highly potential stem cells into the blood stream or the damaged tissues of the patient.  The ability of stem cells to self-renew offers a large potential to repair/replace damaged tissues in the body.  Given their unique regenerative abilities, stem cells offer hope to patients with terminal illness and various conditions and diseases that cannot be adequately treated. 

Friday, September 2, 2011

Essential Oils

Fragrances have been part of life since ancient times. Fragrances and flavours play important role in religious observations.Cosmetics and confectionaries,we use for personal care and hygiene are all added with perfume or flavours. These generally come from plant an like mint (Pudina), coriander and Tulsi (Ocimum) etc. and animals like Kasturi. if we pick-up the leaves of these plants and rub and smell,we feel a special smell or aroma which come from certain odoriferous substances called essential oils. Essential oil are present in plants in specialised cells/glands which may be anywhere in the plant, may be on leaves, flowers, stems, roots, bark or wood . When these glands rupture by pressing, rubbing or heat the smell /aroma come out. Essential oil are composed of aromatic compounds, volatile and hydrophobic in nature. In the Vedic literature of India, one can find references of essential oils. Flavor and fragrances are widely used in Indian life and there uses have been mentioned in Ayurveda “Gandhshastra”- the science of odor which deals with the cosmetics and fragrances. The ancient Egyptians were the first to recognize the therapeutic potential of essential oils. Traditional Indian perfumery industry inherited it secrets from earlier generations. Due to high cost of traditional natural perfumes the market shifted to modern synthetic perfumes. After independence during the last fifty years, the essential oil and other natural product industry has made excellent progress and India has been successful in making export of a large number of natural products like essential oils, extracts, absolutes of jasmine and tuberose, spices oil and oleoresins. Common medicinal properties of essential oils include: analgesic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, astringent, sedative, antispasmodic, expectorant, diuretic, and sedative. Many aromatic herbs, essential oils and aroma chemicals are mentioned as official drugs in the various pharmacopoeias and formularies of different countries

Tuesday, February 15, 2011

Newton plays Hide n Seek

Once all the scientists die and go to heaven. They decide to play hide-n-seek

Unfortunately Einstein is the one who has the den......... ..He is supposed to count upto 100...and then start searching... ..

Everyone starts hiding except Newton...... ...

Newton just draws a square of 1 meter and stands in it right in front of Einstein.

Einstein's counting 1,2,3......97, 98,99.... .100..... ... He opens his eyes and finds Newton standing in front....... .

Einstein says "newton's out..newton' s out....."

Newton denies and says "I am not out........I am not Newton...... "

All the scientists come out to see how he proves that he is not Newton.

Newton says "I am standing in a square of area 1m squared.....

That makes me Newton per meter squared..... .

Since one Newton per meter squared is one Pascal, I'm Pascal, Therefore Pascal is OUT.......!

Friday, February 4, 2011

Newton's laws of LOVE (Humor in Science)

First law:

A boy in love with a girl continues to be in love with her and a girl in love with a boy continues to be in love with him, until and unless any external agent(brother or father of the girl) comes into play and breaks the legs of the boy.

Second law:

The rate of change of intensity of love of a girl towards a boy is directly proportional to his bank balance.

Third law:

The force applied while proposing a girl by a boy is equal and opposite to the force applied by the girl while using her sandals.

Universal law:

Love can neither be created nor be destroyed; it can only be transferred from one girl/Boy friend to another girl/Boy friend.

Sunday, January 16, 2011

Synthetic Biology

Synthetic biology means designing and manufacturing biological components that do not exist in the natural world. It also refers to re-designing and fabrication of existing biological systems. The term “synthetic biology” was first used on genetically engineered bacteria that were created with recombinant DNA technology which was synonymous with bioengineering. Later the term “synthetic biology” was used as a mean to redesign life which is an extension of biomimetic chemistry, where organic synthesis is used to generate artificial molecules that mimic natural molecules such as enzymes.

So far, synthetic biology has produced diagnostic tools for diseases such as HIV and hepatitis viruses as well as devices from biomolecular parts with interesting functions. Synthetic biologists are trying to assemble unnatural components to support Darwinian evolution. Recently, the engineering community is seeking to extract components from the biological systems to test and confirm them as building units to be reassembled in a way that can mimic the living nature. In the engineering aspect of synthetic biology, the suitable parts are the ones that can contribute independently to the whole system so that the behavior of an assembly can be predicted.