Friday, July 31, 2009


Water, a precious gift bestowed on us by Mother Nature, forms a major part of our body constitution. In fact, 2/3 of our body weight is water. The very composition of our body is like that blood is 83% water, muscles are 75% water, brain is 74% water and bone is 22% water. Water is necessary for the very survival of human beings, as it ensures the smooth functioning of body systems.

Lack of water in the body tends to give rise to dehydration, thereby posing hurdles for the blood to circulate. The gravity of problem increases, as it causes the brain to become less active and your body feels tired and fatigued. Water keeps the digestive system in order and flushes out the waste products from your body. Well, the reservoir encompassing the advantages of drinking water is very large, so, read further to explore other health benefits of drinking water…

Water acts as a natural remedy to head your way towards achieving beautiful rich glowing skin. Drinking water skin benefits can be attributed to the fact that water acts as a body purifier, by removing toxins and waste from your body. People who are fed up with their overweight problem, for them hot lemon water works wonders in fastening their weight loss program. It also keeps your heart healthy. So, drink lots of water throughout the day, to promote your mind body fitness.

Water, the natural solution

There is no substitute for a healthy balanced diet, especially rich in antioxidant materials such as vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and other foods that are good for us. However, these substances are not the best source of free electrons that can block the oxidation of healthy tissue by active oxygen.

Water treated by electrolysis to increase its reduction potential is the best solution to the problem of providing a safe source of free electrons to block the oxidation of normal tissue by free oxygen radicals. We believe that reduced water, water with an excess of free electrons to donate to active oxygen, is the best solution because:

The reduction potential of water can be dramatically increased over other antioxidants in food or vitamin supplements.
The molecule weight of reduced water is low, making it fast acting and able to reach all tissues of the body in a very short time.


Ionized water is the product of mild electrolysis which takes place in the ionized water unit. The production of ionized water, its properties, and how it works in the human body are described in the next section. Ionized water is treated tap water that has not only been filtered, but has also been reformed in that it provides reduced water with a large mass of electrons that can be donated to active oxygen in the body to block the oxidation of normal cells.


Tap water: What it is and isn't

Normal tap water, for example, with a pH of 7 is approximately neutral on the pH scale of 0 to 14. When measured with an ORP (oxidation potential) meter its redox potential is approximately +400 to +500 mV. Because it has a positive redox potential, it is apt to acquire electrons and oxidize other molecules. Reduced Ionized Water, on the other hand, has a negative redox potential of approximately -250 to -350 mV. This means it has a large mass of electrons ready to donate to electron-thieving active oxygen.

How Much Water to Drink Per Day
There is no clear-cut answer as to how much water to drink per day, because it depends upon a number of factors like your health condition, your activity status etc.

Warm Lemon Water Benefits
Warm lemon water serves as the perfect good morning drink, as it aids the digestive system and makes the process of eliminating the waste products from the body easier.

Water Weight Loss Benefits
Drinking water and weight loss are directly related to each other. Water helps to lose weight by boosting your metabolism rate, thus paving way for quick weight loss.

Wednesday, July 29, 2009

The Food Pharmacy

The food pharmacy is not at all a kitchen cabinet full of foods that miraculously cure different ailments, it is an idea—how the food can help prevent and even treat disease. A "food pharmacist" realizes that there will not be an instant difference in health when eating differently, but instead a long-term and healthier difference.
Studies suggest that diet plays an important role in health. This suggests that a diet made up of 80 to 90 percent plant materials might be the best for guarding against cancer and heart disease.

The citizens of the most industrialized countries have high incidences of cancer, heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity, to name just a few of our problems, leading to heart attacks and other cardiovascular problems; and obesity (being 20% overweight), which, when compared to a person of average weight, means that you have three times more possibility of a heart attack, five times more of diabetes, and six times more of developing gall bladder diseases. Is our modern, rich food worth the health price we pay?

What does a food pharmacist do?

What does a food pharmacist say about this? Changing your diet acts as preventive medicine to some of major health problems (and is a lot less expensive and less stressful that a heart bypass). The food pharmacist begins consuming less of the foods that are bad for our bodies, and more of the foods that help our bodies. A quick rule of thumb would be to begin eliminating fats and sugar from your diet and limit the cholesterol and salt, because these substances to high cholesterol and clogged arteries and obesity and its problems. In replacement, use whole grains, tubers, fruits, vegetables, and drink plenty of water.

A diet that stresses vegetables and fruits provides you less risk of developing the aforementioned "industrial" diseases. Vegetables and fruit do not have a lot of cholesterol or sugar. You can eat more without gaining weight. And finally, fruits and vegetables may provide added protection against cancer. Research studies have identified thousands of phytochemicals, natural chemical compounds produced by plants, that appear to be able to either repair damaged cells or prevent pre-cancerous damage from occurring.

Can foods cure us? Consider this: Twenty-five percent of all prescription drugs used throughout the world are derived from natural plant substances. If you count fungus and molds, that figure jumps to 50 percent. Penicillin was isolated from bread mold. Malaria can be prevented and cured with quinine, a substance derived from cinchona bark. Morphine is made from an extract of the poppy plant. The list goes on.
If we continue to study the plants in the world around us—both the food plants and others—we might will prove Hippocrates correct when he said "Food is your best medicine and the best foods are the best medicine." and support the Chinese herbalist Shin Huang who said "It is diet which maintains true health and becomes the best drug." Who knows, maybe someday your physician will prescribe foods. Wouldn't that be great?

Fruits in general, contain caffeic acid, which helps make carcinogens water soluble and easier to excrete.

Apple: Boron, mineral linked to the prevention of osteoporosis

Cantaloupe, kiwi, mango, papaya: Vitamin C, an antioxidant; helps immune system by stimulating white blood cells

Bananas: Potassium, which may help regulate blood pressure

Citrus Fruits

In general, limone, which increases activity of enzymes that eliminate carcinogens.
Oranges, grapefruit: A variety of phytochemicals that may reduce inflammation that causes asthma, arthritis, and allergies.

Pineapple: Bromelain, an enzyme that may relieve symptoms of heart disease and asthma.

Manganese; which helps build bones.


Broccoli: Dithiolthiones, which may speed up production of enzymes that protect DNA from damage. Sulforaphane, which may be used prevent breast cancer.

Cabbage, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale, mustard greens, rutabaga, turnip green, Indoles: which might lower risk of breast cancer. Isothiocynates, which help protect DNA.

Peppers: Phytochemicals, which may prevent carcinogens from activity.

Capsaicin: which is used to treat arthritis.

Tomatoes: Vitamin C, an antioxidant, Lycopne, which may be linked to lower incidences of cancer.

Carrots: Beta carotene, an antioxidant; might prevent and treat cancer; lowers cholesterol

Asparagus: Fiber, vitamin C, and calcium; and a phytochemical that may prevent cervical cancer

Garlic, onion: Allyl sulfides, which have antibiotic properties and may help an enzyme that removes carcinogens in the body.

Soybeans: Genistein, which may be able to block tumor growth.

Tuesday, July 28, 2009

Indian N-submarine : INS Arihant

India on Sunday reached a milestone when Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and his wife Gursharan Kaur launched the country's first indigenous nuclear-powered submarine 'INS Arihant' for sea trials.

Kaur broke a coconut and performed a puja after which she unveiled a plaque naming the 112-metre-long submarine. "I name it INS Arihant. All the best to the submarine," she said.(INS Arihant, which translates as "destroyer of enemies")

Declaring that India has achieved a "historic milestone in the country's defence preparedness" with the launch of the submarine, the Prime Minister said, "We don't have any aggressive designs nor do we seek to threaten anyone.

"We seek an external environment in our region and beyond that is conducive to our peaceful development and protection of our value systems," Singh said in his speech congratulating everyone associated with the advanced technology vessel (n-submarine) programme.

Singh said, "Nevertheless, it is incumbent upon us to take all measures necessary to safeguard our country and to keep pace with technological advancements worldwide".

With the sea trials, India has announced to the world that it possesses underwater platforms capable of launching nuclear weapons, completing its nuclear triad (land, air and sea) capability and strengthening its strategic deterrence.

It also made its entry into an elite club of nations comprising the US, Russia, France, the UK and China, which possess capabilities to develop nuclear submarine.

Code-named Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV), the submarine christened 'INS Arihant' (destroyer of enemy) was launched for sea trials at the Matsya naval dockyard here.

As India has declared "no first use" of nuclear weapons, the country's weapons system must survive a first strike for retaliation.

Therefore, Arihant's primary weapon is stealth as it can lurk in ocean depths of half a kilometre or more and fire its missiles from under the sea.

The 6000-tonne submarine is powered by an 85 megawatt capacity nuclear reactor and can acquire surface speeds of 22 to 28 kmph (12-15 knots) and submerged speed upto 44 kmph (24 knots). It will be carrying a crew of 95 men and will be armed with torpedoes and missiles including 12 ballistic missiles.

Four more nuclear-powered submarine of this class have already got government's nod and these would add to the Navy's underwater combat potential in the years to come.

Defence Minister A K Antony, Navy chief Admiral Sureesh Mehta and Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Y S Rajasekhara Reddy witnessed the event.

The Prime Minister flew to Vishakapatnam on Sunday morning by the IAF's newly acquired Boeing business jet and reached the venue of the submarine launch by road.

Sea trials of the submarine will be conducted in the Bay of Bengal off Vishakapatnam, where the vessel was under construction for the last two decades.

The Rs 30,000-crore secret nuclear submarine project was started in the 1980s though it was conceived by then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in the 1970s.

The first official admission of the project nearing completion came this February when Antony had announced it during the AeroIndia show in Bangalore.

INS Arihant can also be armed with cruise missiles.

The DRDO is already working on an equally secretive Sagarika project for a 700-km K-15 missile, capable of carrying nuclear weapons.

With US, Russia and China already fielding 5,000-km range SLBMs, the DRDO too has recently tested an SLBM based on the design of 3,500-km range Agni-III.

The induction of ATV will help India to complete the nuclear weapons triad, as envisaged under its nuclear doctrine to deliver nuke-tipped missiles from land, air and sea.

India has land-based nuclear-capable Agni ballistic missiles, apart from IAF fighters such as Mirage-2000 that can deliver tactical nukes.

Two decades ago, India had operated a Charlie-class nuclear submarine, christened INS Chakra, leased from Russia for three years between 1989 and 1991.

Moscow will again lease out two Akula-class nuclear submarines to New Delhi for 10 years. Plans to deliver the submarines this June were hit by a mishap during sea trials late last year. But hopes have soared for its delivery in 2010 after Russia took out the repaired vessel for sea trials again early this month.


Saturday, July 25, 2009

Man becoming God???: Human sperm grown in lab

In this 'Brave New World' fact is truly becoming stranger than fiction.

In a first-ever, scientists have announced the creation of artificial human sperms from a source far removed from its origins. Stem cells derived from human bone marrow are now the new ‘fathers’ of immature sperms, which the scientists hope can eventually be worked upon to benefit infertile men.

The extraordinary development, which until a few years ago belonged in the realms of science fiction, raises hopes that infertile men may one day be able to father their own biological children.

The sperm were created in a test tube, from stem cells derived from a five-day-old male embryo. The advance raises ethical questions over the safety of the procedure and the threat it poses to the future role of men. It was also challenged by experts who claimed the sperm-like cells produced in the experiment were not genuine sperm.

If the finding is confirmed, a single male embryo could, in theory, yield a stem-cell line which when stored could provide an unlimited supply of sperm. Once the stem-cell line was established, there would be no further reproductive need for men. In a briefing on the research, the scientists at Newcastle University and the NorthEast England Stem Cell Institute, led by Professor Karim Nayernia, raise the question of whether their discovery means "the end of men" or the man becoming God?

The stem cells from which the sperm were made could only be derived from a male embryo – one containing a Y (male) chromosome – so at least one male would be required.

Three years ago, Professor Nayernia led scientists at the University of Gottingen in Germany who became the first to produce viable sperm from mouse embryonic stem cells which were used to produce seven live offspring. However, the baby mice died shortly after birth.

The latest discovery is a further step on the way to finding a cure for male infertility.

Tuesday, July 21, 2009


On Wednesday, 2009 July 22, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor that traverses half of Earth which includes most of eastern Asia, and the Pacific Ocean. The total solar eclipse of 22nd of July 2009 will be the longest eclipse of the 21st Century being 6 minutes 38 seconds at the point of maximum eclipse. The occurrences of total solar eclipses are still important, not withstanding the invention of coronagraph in 1930 and number of space instruments launched in space to make the observations of solar corona in EUV, soft X-ray and low resolution broad band images. The total solar eclipses provide minimum of scattered light about 1000 times less than that in the coronagraphs.

The total solar eclipse will be of longest duration during this century. It will be visible in India, some of the Japanese islands, China and Pacific Ocean. The eclipse begins with the sunrise in the western part of India, travels to eastern part of India, crosses to Myna-mar (Burma), small islands of Japan and China. In India Surat, Indore, Bhopal, Jabalpur, Varanasi and Patna are some of the cities lie close to the central part of the totality. In China duration of the totality will be about 5 minutes. In India altitude of the sun will be about 15 degrees in the eastern part at the time of total eclipse and this period is full of rains due to South West monsoon.

What Causes a Solar Eclipse?

An eclipse occurs at those times when the Moon moves into a position of direct alignment with the Sun and the Earth. Not all solar eclipses are total. During a partial solar eclipse, only the penumbra touches our planet. The umbra passes either just above the North Pole or just below the South Pole, completely missing the Earth. No total eclipse is visible -- only partial phases can be seen.

Why is a total solar eclipse such a rare event?

Eclipses do not occur every month during a new Moon or a full Moon. This is because the orbit of the Moon is tilted by about five degrees with respect to the Earth’s orbit, so that usually the Moon passes slightly above or below the line between the Sun and the Earth. Thus at most new and full Moons, the shadows miss their mark and no eclipse occurs.

To see a total solar eclipse, you have to be in the path of totality. With fewer than 70 total eclipses per century, the chance to see one is for most of us a once-in-a-lifetime event.

The sun's outermost region, called the corona, shines like a halo around the moon during a total solar eclipse. Such eclipses occur when a new moon passes in front of the sun. They don't happen often—only about once a year—since the tilted orbits of the sun, moon, and Earth make their alignment rare. Total solar eclipses are of special interest to astronomers because it is the only time the sun's corona can be seen from the Earth's surface.

On Wednesday, 2009 July 22, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor that traverses half of Earth which includes most of eastern Asia, and the Pacific Ocean. The total solar eclipse of 22nd of July 2009 will be the longest eclipse of the 21st Century being 6 minutes 38 seconds at the point of maximum eclipse. The occurrences of total solar eclipses are still important, not withstanding the invention of coronagraph in 1930 and number of space instruments launched in space to make the observations of solar corona in EUV, soft X-ray and low resolution broad band images. The total solar eclipses provide minimum of scattered light about 1000 times less than that in the coronagraphs.

The total solar eclipse will be of longest duration during this century. It will be visible in India, some of the Japanese islands, China and Pacific Ocean. The eclipse begins with the sunrise in the western part of India, travels to eastern part of India, crosses to Myna-mar (Burma), small islands of Japan and China. In India Surat, Indore, Bhopal, Jabalpur, Varanasi and Patna are some of the cities lie close to the central part of the totality. In China duration of the totality will be about 5 minutes. In India altitude of the sun will be about 15 degrees in the eastern part at the time of total eclipse and this period is full of rains due to South West monsoon.

Imaging of the solar corona has the advantages of providing the information over two dimensional region of the solar corona but it may have the small uncertainty of in the data due to variations in the sky transparency. On the other hand spectroscopy provides data only on the small portion of the solar corona but with spectral purity and is possible to account for the variations in the sky transparency. Line profiles can also yield information about the temperature and non-thermal structure of the solar corona.

Watch solar eclipse with precaution

For protecting the eyes, one must use tested solar filter goggles all through the partial phase, only during the period of totality one can enjoy the total solar eclipse with naked eyes.

Saturday, July 18, 2009


Biodiversity (or biological diversity) has been described as the rich variety of life on Earth. So far, mankind has discovered about 1.75 million living things; estimates of the total number of species on Earth range from 5 million to 100 million species. Biodiversity is critical to every person on this planet. All of nature's plants and animals contribute to maintaining a healthy place for us to live. We depend on them for food, air, water, clothing, building materials, medicines, and natural refuges.

Nature is healthiest and strongest when there is a rich variety of different species, with an abundance of genetic diversity within species. Living organisms interact with one another, and delicate balances between and among organisms are achieved through millions of intricate, natural processes. These balances are easily impaired or destroyed.

Our world's natural biodiversity is in trouble. Planet Earth is undergoing a rapid loss of species, causing ecological crises on a global scale. Scientists around the world are warning us that we are destroying, at an unprecedented rate in human history, the very things that give us life and good health.

Human activities are largely responsible for the rapid loss of species. Examples include clear-cut logging, road building, conversion of natural lands to single-species crops, over-fishing, draining wetlands, burning rainforests and damming watersheds. These types of activities destroy or change natural habitats and populations to the point where local plants and animals cannot cope, populations dwindle, and often species begin to disappear. Losses may be more serious than we know because there are many undiscovered species and many unknown interactions between species. This realization should intensify our concern for the life-giving values we may be destroying.


Biodiversity is not distributed uniformly across the globe. Some habitats, particularly tropical forests among terrestrial systems possess a greater number or density of species than others. Thus a 13.7 sq km area of the La Selva Forest Reserve in Costa Rica contains almost 1,500 plant species, more than the total found in 243,500 sq km of Great Britain, while Ecuador harbours more than 1,300 bird species, or almost twice as many as the USA and Canada combined (Myers, 1988). It is widely accepted that the identification and prioritisation of important centres of biodiversity are necessary at both the national and the global scale for conservation action. A number of methods by which such areas could be determined have been suggested.

The most widely accepted approach of suggesting target areas for conservation action is to identify areas with the greatest number of endemic or restricted-range species. An endemic species is one restricted to some given area, which might be a mountain top, a river, a country or continent.

An important study that has attempted to use endemic species to identify areas of global conservation concern was that of Myers (1988, 1990). Focusing on tropical forests, Myers identified 18 regions or ‘hot spots’ that are characterised by high concentration of endemic species and are experiencing unusually rapid rates of habitat modification or loss. Together, these 18 sites contain approximately 49,955 endemic plant species, or 20% of the world’s recorded plant species, in only 746,400 sq km or 0.5% of the earth's land surface.


India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world. The country is divided into 10 bio-geographic regions : Trans-Himalayan, Himalayan, Indian Desert, Semi-Arid, Western Ghats, Deccan Peninsula, Gangetic Plains, North-East India, Islands and Coasts, and this diversity creates rich biodiversity in the country. The wide variety in physical features and climatic situations have resulted in a diversity of ecological habitats like forests, grasslands, wetlands, coastal and marine ecosystems and desert ecosystems, which harbour and sustain the immense biodiversity. With only 2.4% of the total land area of the world, the known biological diversity of India contributes 8% to the known global biological diversity. Currently available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. In terms of the number of mammalian species, India ranks tenth in the world; in terms of the endemic species of higher vertebrates, it ranks eleventh. It stands seventh in the world for the number of species contributed to agriculture and animal husbandry.


Conservation and sustainable use of biological resources based on local knowledge systems and practices is ingrained in Indian ethos and way of life. Initiation of policies and programmes for conservation and sustainable utilisation of biological resources date back to several decades. As a result, India has a strong network of institutions mapping biodiversity and undertaking taxonomic studies. The Botanical Survey of India (established in 1890) and the Zoological Survey of India (established in 1916) are primarily responsible for survey of flora and fauna. The National Institute of Oceanography and several other specialised institutions and universities further strengthen the taxonomic data base. Based on the survey of 70% of the total geographical area of the country, 46,000 species of plants and 81,000 species of animals have been recorded so far. These life forms are actually and potentially important for developments in the fields of food, medicine, textiles, energy, recreation and tourism. The areas not yet surveyed include the inaccessible Himalayan area, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Exclusive Economic Zone. These areas are expected to be rich repositories of endemic and other species.

Saturday, July 11, 2009

Some Key facts about Climate change

Changing patterns of rainfall and drought, shifts in the location and intensity of diseases, rising sea levels and increased and more intense climate-related disasters such as hurricanes or floods will all have the greatest impact on the poorest people in our world. Tackling the causes of a changing climate, and minimising the harms, is a matter of justice.

Some Key facts

The world has warmed by nearly 1° C over the last century. The rate of warming over the last 50 years is nearly twice that of the last 100 years.


Eleven of the last 12 years rank among the 12 warmest years on record.


Sea levels are rising at a rapid rate (having risen by 20cm over the 20th century); in Asia, the homes of 94 million people could be flooded by the end of the century, leading to large-scale migration.


The area of the world stricken by drought has doubled between 1970 and the early 2000s. In Africa fertile land is already turning to desert. By 2020, climate change is predicted to reduce some African farming harvests by 50%


Unpredictable rainfall, together with rising sea levels and higher sea temperatures will lead to more frequent storms, floods and droughts.


Storm surges in coastal areas are a threat to the economies of low-lying countries like Egypt and Thailand, where many factories and offices are less than a metre above sea-level.


Natural disasters can set back a country’s economy by years. In 1998, Hurricane Mitch hit more than 25% of households in Honduras and led to a 7% drop in agricultural output. The number of people living in poverty in Honduras is now growing.


Between 1900 and 2004, 73% of disasters were climate related; 94% of disasters and 97% of disaster-related deaths occur in developing countries.


Humanitarian responses to disasters cost donors $6 billion every year.


By 2020 between 75 and 250 million people in Africa will be facing increased water shortages.


Over 3 billion people in the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent could be facing acute shortages of water – affecting productivity and jobs.


Rainfall in the wet season in Pakistan could increase by 5 to 50% by 2070, which would have significant impacts on cotton, the country’s main cash crop.


Climate change brings the risk of increases in serious diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and polio. Longer rainy seasons have already led to increased malaria in parts of Rwanda and Tanzania.


Temperatures in 2100 could be 1.4 to 5.8° higher than in 1990 if emissions aren’t curbed now.


A temperature rise of 2 to 3.5° in India would reduce farmers’ incomes by between 9 and 25%.


A temperature rise of 2° would dramatically shrink the land available for growing Robusta coffee in Uganda and restrict it to upland areas.


By 2025 two-thirds of the earth’s population will suffer water shortages.